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Martel, also known as Charles the Hammer, was a Frankish military and political leader. He was brilliant… [More] general and is considered to be a founding figure of the Middle Ages, often credited with a seminal role in the development of feudalism and knighthood, and laying the groundwork for the Carolingian Empire. He was also the father of Pepin the Short and grandfather of Charlemagne. In 739 he was offered the title of Consul by the Pope, but he refused. He is remembered for winning the Battle of Tours in 732, in which he defeated an invading Moorish army. This victory is traditionally credited with halting northward Islamic expansion in western Europe. [Less]
1919: Vladimir Abramovich Rokhlin
Rokhlin, born in Baku, Azerbaijan to a wealthy Russian Jewish family, was a very influential Soviet… [More] mathematician. He made numerous contributions in algebraic topology, geometry, measure theory, probability theory, and more. His maternal grandmother, Clara Levenson, was one of the first female doctors in Russia. His father, Abram Veniaminovich Rokhin, was a well-known social democrat who was imprisoned during Stalin’s Great Purge, and executed in 1941. [Less]
1924: Ephraim Kishon
Kishon was an Israeli author, dramatist, screenwriter, and film director. He was imprisoned in… [More] several concentration camps during the Holocaust and due to anti-Semitic and racial laws in Hungary, he was not allowed to continue his university studies and pursued jewelry making instead. He is one of the most widely-read contemporary satirists in the world. [Less]