Explainer: What is driving the current Israel-Gaza violence

Why the IDF resorted to force, how Islamic Jihad has bolstered its rocket capabilities, Iran’s behind-the-scenes role, and the dilemma facing Hamas

Israel's Iron Dome air defense system intercepts a rocket launched from the Gaza Strip, above the southern Israeli city of Sderot on August 6, 2022. (Jack Guez/AFP)
Israel's Iron Dome air defense system intercepts a rocket launched from the Gaza Strip, above the southern Israeli city of Sderot on August 6, 2022. (Jack Guez/AFP)

AP — Israel and Palestinian Islamic Jihad in the Gaza Strip were exchanging fire Saturday on the second day of the worst bout of cross-border violence since an 11-day war between Israel and Hamas last year.

Israeli airstrikes have killed 11 people, including a senior commander from Islamic Jihad, an Iran-backed terrorist group, who was slain in a targeted attack. The killing of Tayseer Jabari, which sparked the conflict, was carried out because he was overseeing preparations for an attack with anti-tank missiles intended to “mow down” Israeli citizens or soldiers near the Gaza border, the Israeli army spokesman said.

Islamic Jihad fired over 200 rockets and projectiles at Israeli cities and towns in the south and center, disrupting life for well over a million Israelis.

Here’s a look at the latest round of violence:

In Hamas’s shadow

Islamic Jihad is the smaller of the two main Palestinian terrorist groups in the Gaza Strip, and is vastly outnumbered by the ruling Hamas. But it enjoys direct financial and military backing from Iran, and has become the driving force in engaging in rocket attacks and other confrontations with Israel.

Hamas, which seized control of Gaza in 2007 from the internationally recognized Palestinian Authority, is often limited in its ability to act because it bears responsibility for running day-to-day affairs of the impoverished territory. Islamic Jihad has no such duties and has emerged as the more militant faction, occasionally even undermining Hamas’s authority.

Israeli police cordon off a building in the southern Israeli city of Sderot on August 6, 2022 following a rocket attack fired from the Gaza Strip. (Jack Guez/AFP)

The group was founded in 1981 with the aim of establishing an Islamic Palestinian state in the West Bank, Gaza and all of what is now Israel. It is designated a terrorist organization by the US State Department, European Union and other governments. Like Hamas, Islamic Jihad is sworn to Israel’s destruction.

The Iranian connection

Israel’s archenemy Iran supplies Islamic Jihad with training, expertise and money, but most of the group’s weapons are locally produced. In recent years, it has sought to develop an arsenal comparable to that of Hamas, with longer-range rockets capable of striking central Israel’s Tel Aviv metropolitan area. Air raid sirens went off in the suburbs just south of Tel Aviv on Friday, although no rockets appear to have hit the area, and the central city of Modiin was targeted on Saturday.

Although its base is Gaza, Islamic Jihad also has leadership in Beirut and Damascus, where it maintains close ties with Iranian officials.

Head of Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (L) meets in Tehran with Palestinian Islamic Jihad’s general-secretary Ziad Nakhaleh, August 6, 2022.

Ziad Nakhalah, the group’s top leader, was in Tehran meeting Iranian officials when Israel began its operation in Gaza on Friday.

Targeting commanders

Friday wasn’t the first time Israel has killed Islamic Jihad leaders in Gaza. The commander it killed, Jabari, 50, replaced Bahaa Abu el-Atta who was slain by Israel in a 2019 strike. His death had been the first high-profile assassination of an Islamic Jihad figure by Israel since the 2014 war in the Gaza Strip.

Jabari was a member of Islamic Jihad’s “military council,” the group’s decision-making body in Gaza. He was in charge of the Islamic Jihad terrorist activities in Gaza City and the northern Gaza Strip during the 2021 war.

A fireball erupts as a result of an Israeli air strike on a building in Gaza City on August 6, 2022. (Ashraf Amra/AFP)

His death came on the heels of the arrest by Israel of a senior Islamic Jihad commander in the West Bank earlier this week. Bassam al-Saadi, 62, is a senior Islamic Jihad official in the northern West Bank. According to Israeli media, al-Saadi was working to deepen the group’s reach in the West Bank and expand its capabilities.

Al-Saadi spent a total of 15 years over several stints in Israeli jails for being an active Islamic Jihad member. Israel killed two of his sons who were also Islamic Jihad terrorists in separate incidents in 2002, and destroyed his home during a fierce battle in the West Bank city of Jenin the same year.

“Once you will hit the commanders it will affect immediately all the organization,” said Zvika Haimovich, the former head of the Israeli military’s air defense force.

“It immediately creates a big mess in the Jihad.”

A delicate balance

Since seizing power in 2007, Hamas has fought four wars with Israel, often with support from Islamic Jihad fighters. Aside from a flare-up earlier this year, the border has largely been quiet since last year’s 11-day war and Hamas appears to be staying on the sidelines of this current conflagration, which might keep it from spilling over into all-out war.

Tayseer Jabari, the commander of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad in northern Gaza, in an undated photo. Jabari was targeted and killed in an Israeli airstrike on August 5, 2022. (Social media)

Islamic Jihad militants have challenged Hamas by firing rockets, often without claiming responsibility, to raise its profile among Palestinians while Hamas maintains the cease-fire. Israel holds Hamas responsible for all rocket fire coming from Gaza.

Hamas must walk a tightrope between restraining Islamic Jihad’s fire at Israel while avoiding the ire of Palestinians if it cracks down on the group. Like in past flare-ups, Hamas will have the final say in how long — and how violent — this round of fighting will last.

Caretaker leader

The current fighting comes as Israel is mired in a protracted political crisis that is sending voters to the polls for the fifth time in less than four years in the fall.

Caretaker leader Yair Lapid took over earlier this summer after the ideologically diverse government he helped form collapsed, triggering the new elections.

Prime Minister Yair Lapid speaks about the IDF operation in Gaza, August 5, 2022. (Kobi Elkatzur/GPO)

Lapid, a centrist former TV host and author, lacks the security background many Israelis see as essential for their leadership. His political fortunes could rest on the current fighting, either gaining a boost if he can portray himself as a capable leader or take a hit from a lengthy operation as Israelis try to enjoy the last weeks of summer.

Lapid hopes to edge out former prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu, a security hawk who is on trial for corruption charges, in the November 1 vote.

Times of Israel staff contributed to this article.

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