Twenty-five years after Pan Am Flight 103 was blown up over Lockerbie, Scotland, with the loss of all 259 passengers and crew and 11 people on the ground, a former senior member of the Israeli security establishment said he was certain the bombing was carried out by Ahmed Jibril’s Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command.
The Israeli source, who spoke to The Times of Israel on condition of anonymity, said Israel was “listening in” during the months prior to the December 21, 1988 bombing on preparations for what “we thought was a plan to target an Israeli plane” and that it was “clear that Jibril prepared the operation.”
The comments came ahead of Saturday’s 25th anniversary of the worst terrorist attack ever carried out on British territory, and the worst terror attack on American civilians with the exception of 9/11. The anniversary is prompting another slew of conspiracy theories as to who was responsible.
Among the claims that have come to the fore in various newspaper reports, TV documentaries and new books in the last few days are allegations that the bomber was Palestinian terrorist Mohammed Abu Talb, who carried out a series of bombings in Copenhagen and Amsterdam in 1985; that the CIA subverted the investigation; and that a fair-minded examination of the evidence demonstrates that the bomb, rather than beginning its fateful journey in Malta, was smuggled onto Flight 103 via a baggage container at Heathrow Airport.
The Israeli source did not dispute that Col. Muammar Gaddafi’s Libya, which in 2003 accepted responsibility for the bombing and paid compensation to victims’ families, had commissioned the attack. And he said that while an Iranian role made sense, Israel had found no proof of Iranian involvement. (Iran, a prime orchestrator of international terrorism, had pledged to avenge the July 1988 accidental downing by the USS Vincennes of Iran Air Flight 655 in the Persian Gulf, with the loss of all 290 people on board.)
Several Israeli prime ministers and former heads of the Mossad intelligence service have told this reporter over the years that it is their belief that the Libyans instigated the bombing.
The source, who was a senior figure in the Israeli military intelligence hierarchy at the time of the Lockerbie blast, said there was a “huge alert” in the Israeli security establishment in the months before the bombing, because of indications that the PFLP-GC was about to strike. “We told the British and the Americans what we knew, which was that there was an intention to hit an Israeli plane,” he said. “We didn’t warn about a British or an American plane because we didn’t know that,” he said.
The only man ever convicted for the bombing was a Libyan intelligence officer, Abdelbaset al-Megrahi, who was found to have placed a suitcase containing the bomb on a flight from Malta to Frankfurt, from where it was transferred to a flight to London’s Heathrow, before detonating on Flight 103 a little more than half an hour after the Pan Am plane took off for New York. Megrahi, who was jailed in 2001 after a trial in which his fellow alleged Libyan conspirator, Lamin Fhima, was acquitted, went to his death in 2012 insisting on his innocence.
The former Israeli official said he was “not at all sure” that Megrahi had anything to do with bombing. “Megrahi was the man who was persuaded to say he did it, for the Libyan national interest. Beyond that, I can’t say.”
Initial UK-US investigations into the bombing indicated that
Jibril’s pro-Syrian PFLP-GC had carried it out. Jibril, who is today believed to be in Syria, was born south of Tel Aviv but his family settled in Syria after the establishment of Israel. Once a leading Syrian army bomb-maker, his PFLP-GC had a history of hijacking and blowing up airplanes, and he had publicly warned two years before the Lockerbie blast that “there will be no safety for any traveler on an Israeli or US airliner.”
As early as 1970, Jibril had smuggled barometric pressure devices onto airliners, claiming responsibility for blowing up a Swissair flight to Tel Aviv in this fashion in February, 1970, with the deaths of all 47 people on board.
Two months before the Lockerbie bombing, Jibril’s right-hand man Hafez Dalkamouni was arrested by German police along with other members of a PFLP-GC cell found to be in possession of several barometric pressure explosive devices, built into Toshiba radio-recorders, similar though not identical to the device that investigators subsequently established was used in the Lockerbie bombing.
Unexpectedly, however, the British-American investigation subsequently shifted focus to Libya, largely on the strength of a tiny fragment of a timing device ostensibly discovered among the bombing debris, a device which Megrahi’s trial was told had been incontrovertibly traced to Libya.
The allegation that this timing device was suspect, and that the investigation was skewed because of realpolitik considerations — such as a desire to avoid implicating Syria at a time when the US was building a coalition against Saddam Hussein, or to placate Iran and thus secure the release of Western hostages — is at the heart of many of the conspiracy theories surrounding the bombing.
Having reported on the Lockerbie bombing from the UK at the time, and seen material ostensibly linking the blast to the PFLP-GC, this reporter has frequently questioned high-placed Israeli politicians and members of the security establishment about the affair. Then trade minister Ariel Sharon declared three months after the blast that Israel — one of whose citizens, Daniel Browner, was killed in the bombing — believed Jibril to have carried out the attack.
The source who spoke to The Times of Israel asserted that the trial at which Megrahi was convicted, held at Camp Zeist in the Netherlands, “did not rule out” that Jibril organized the bombing on Gaddafi’s behalf.
Although other reports have suggested that both Jibril and Dalkamouni visited Tehran after the Iran Air plane was downed and ahead of the Lockerbie bombing to discuss carrying out the attack, and that Jibril was paid $11 million by Iran days after the bombing, the Israeli source said Israel had “no proof” of an Iranian role.
Jibril has always denied any part in the Lockerbie bombing. This week, too, a PFLP-GC spokesman reiterated the denial.
Libya’s Justice Minister Salah Margani said this week that his government would allow US and British investigators to question Abdullah al-Senoussi, Gaddafi’s intelligence chief — who is facing trial in Libya for crimes under the Gaddafi regime — over allegations of complicity in the Lockerbie bombing.
As The Times of Israel's environment reporter, I try to convey the facts and science behind climate change and environmental degradation, to explain - and critique - the official policies affecting our future, and to describe Israeli technologies that can form part of the solution.
I am passionate about the natural world and disheartened by the dismal lack of awareness to environmental issues shown by most of the public and politicians in Israel.
I'm proud to be doing my part to keep Times of Israel readers properly informed about this vital subject - which can and does effect policy change.
Your support, through membership in The Times of Israel Community, enables us to continue our important work. Would you join our Community today?
Sue Surkes, Environment Reporter
We’re really pleased that you’ve read X Times of Israel articles in the past month.
That’s why we come to work every day - to provide discerning readers like you with must-read coverage of Israel and the Jewish world.
So now we have a request. Unlike other news outlets, we haven’t put up a paywall. But as the journalism we do is costly, we invite readers for whom The Times of Israel has become important to help support our work by joining The Times of Israel Community.
For as little as $6 a month you can help support our quality journalism while enjoying The Times of Israel AD-FREE, as well as accessing exclusive content available only to Times of Israel Community members.