Iran’s chief nuclear negotiator signaled progress at talks with six powers Thursday on a deal to cap some of his country’s atomic programs in exchange for limited relief from sanctions stifling Iran’s economy, saying the six had accepted Tehran’s proposals on how to proceed.
According to Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif, Iran and the P5+1 will begin drafting a nuclear agreement in Geneva on Friday. US officials said Secretary of State John Kerry will fly to Geneva on Friday to participate in the nuclear negotiations — a last minute decision that suggests a deal could be imminent.
Any such agreement would only be the start of a long process to reduce Iran’s potential nuclear threat with no guarantee of ultimate success.
Yet even a limited accord would mark a breakthrough after nearly a decade of mostly inconclusive talks focused on limiting, if not eliminating, Iranian atomic programs that could be turned from producing energy into making weapons.
According to Britain’s Telegraph, the deal’s four main points were that Iran would stop enriching uranium to 20 percent and convert its existing stockpile into harmless uranium oxide. Iran would be able to continue enrichment to 3.5% purity necessary for nuclear power plants — but would agree to limit the number of centrifuges running for this purpose. The inactive centrifuges would be able to remain intact. Iran would also agree not to activate its plutonium reactor at Arak, which could provide an alternative route to a nuclear weapon, during the six-month period. Lastly, Iran would agree not to use the advanced IR-2 centrifuges, which enrich uranium three to five times faster than the older model.
In return, the British paper reported, the US “would ease economic sanctions, possibly by releasing some Iranian foreign exchange reserves currently held in frozen accounts” and ease “some restrictions on Iran’s petrochemical, motor and precious metals industries.”
As talks in Geneva moved ahead, Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu cautioned against any deal that kept Iran’s nuclear program intact, saying “I believe adopting the proposals is a mistake of historic proportions. They must be rejected outright.”
Zarif responded to Netanyahu’s statement, telling the Guardian: “I don’t think he’s an authority on mistakes because he’s been making mistakes for his entire life. He’s been calling the Iranian program six months away from a nuclear weapon since 1991, so I don’t consider him a credible authority.”
Tehran’s chief nuclear negotiator, Abbas Araqchi, told Iranian state TV that the six — the United States, Russia, China, Britain, France and Germany — “clearly said that they accept the proposed framework by Iran.” He later told CNN that he thinks negotiators at the table are now “ready to start drafting” an accord that outlines specific steps to be taken.
Though Araqchi described the negotiations as “very difficult,” he told Iranian state TV that he expected agreement on details by Friday, the last scheduled round of the current talks.
The upbeat comments suggested that negotiators in Geneva were moving from broad discussions over a nuclear deal to details meant to limit Tehran’s ability to make atomic weapons. In return, Iran would start getting relief from sanctions that have hit its economy hard.
President Barack Obama, in an interview with NBC on Thursday, described any sanctions relief as “modest” but said core sanctions against Iran would remain in place.
“Our job is not to trust the Iranians,” Obama said. “Our job is to put in place mechanisms where we can verify what they’re doing and not doing when it comes to their nuclear program.”
The US officials said Kerry will travel to the Geneva talks after a brief stop in Israel, where he will hold a third meeting with Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. The officials spoke on condition of anonymity because Kerry has not been formally invited by the Europeans to join the talks.
The talks are primarily focused on the size and output of Iran’s enrichment program, which can create both reactor fuel and weapons-grade material suitable for a nuclear bomb. Iran insists it is pursuing only nuclear energy, medical treatments and research.
International negotiators representing the six powers declined to comment on Araghchi’s statement. But White House spokesman Jay Carney elaborated on what the US calls a “first step” of a strategy meant to ultimately contain Iran’s ability to use its nuclear program to make weapons.
An initial agreement would “address Iran’s most advanced nuclear activities; increase transparency so Iran will not be able to use the cover of talks to advance its program; and create time and space as we negotiate a comprehensive agreement,” Carney told reporters in Washington.
The six would consider “limited, targeted and reversible relief that does not affect our core sanctions,” he said, alluding to penalties crippling Tehran’s oil exports. If Iran reneges, said Carney, “the temporary, modest relief would be terminated, and we would be in a position to ratchet up the pressure even further by adding new sanctions.”
He described any temporary, initial relief of sanctions as likely “more financial rather than technical.” Diplomats have previously said initial sanction rollbacks could free Iranian funds in overseas accounts and allow trade in gold and petrochemicals.
Warily watching from the sidelines, Israel warned against a partial agreement that foresees lifting sanctions now instead of waiting for a rigorous final accord that eliminates any possibility of Iran making nuclear weapons.
At a meeting with US legislators in Jerusalem, Netanyahu spoke of “the deal of the century for Iran.” While divulging no details, he said the proposed first step at Geneva “will relieve all the (sanctions) pressure inside Iran.”
The last round of talks three weeks ago reached agreement on a framework of possible discussion points, and the two sides kicked off Thursday’s round focused on getting to that first step.
The talks concern the size and output of Iran’s enrichment program, which can create both reactor fuel and weapons-grade material suitable for a nuclear bomb. Iran insists it is pursuing only nuclear energy, medical treatments and research, but the United States and its allies fear that Iran could turn this material into the fissile core of nuclear warheads.
Thursday’s meeting ended about an hour after it began, followed by bilateral meetings, including one between the US and Iranian delegations. European Union spokesman Michael Mann said the talks were “making progress.”
Before the morning round, Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif met with top EU diplomat Catherine Ashton, who is convening the meeting. Asked afterward about the chances of agreement on initial steps this week, Zarif told reporters: “If everyone tries their best, we may have one.”
After nearly a decade of deadlock, Iran seems more amenable to making concessions to the six countries. Iran’s new president, Hassan Rouhani, has indicated he could cut back on the nuclear program in exchange for an easing of sanctions.
Despite the seemingly calmer political backdrop, issues remain.
Iranian hardliners, want a meaningful — and quick — reduction of the sanctions in exchange for any concessions, while some US lawmakers want significant rollbacks in Iran’s nuclear activities in exchange for any loosening of actions.