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Franco was the Spanish dictator, general, and leader of the Nationalist military rebellion during… [More] the Spanish Civil War. He served as the authoritarian head of state of Spain from 1939 to his death in November 1975. He came to power while recognizing the principles of the far-right Falange movement, although this was for propaganda reasons, as he belonged to no political party before becoming the leader of Spain. As head of state, Franco used the titles Caudillo de España and Generalísimo, but also was called formally as His Excellency, The Head of State. [Less]
1908: Alfred Hershey
Hershey was a Jewish-American Nobel Prize-winning bacteriologist and geneticist. He began performing… [More] experiments with bacteriophages with Italian-American Salvador Luria and German Max Delbrück in 1940, and observed that when two different strains of bacteriophage have infected the same bacteria, the two viruses may exchange genetic information. He moved with his assistant Martha to Cold Spring Harbor, New York, in 1950 to join the Carnegie Institution of Washington’s Department of Genetics, where he performed the famous Hershey-Chase experiment with Martha Chase in 1952. This experiment provided additional evidence that DNA, not protein, was the genetic material. He became director of the Carnegie Institution in 1962 and was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1969, shared with Salvador Luria and Max Delbrück for their discovery on the replication of viruses and their genetic structure. [Less]
1918: Robert Ettinger
Ettinger was a Jewish-American science fiction writer and physics instructor. Known as “the father of… [More] cryonics” because of the impact of his 1962 book The Prospect of Immortality. He is also considered by some a pioneer transhumanist on the basis of his 1972 book Man into Superman. He also founded the Cryonics Institute and the related Immortalist Society and until 2003 served as the groups’ president. His body has been cryopreserved, like the bodies of his first and second wives, and his mother. [Less]