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Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus was born in this date BCE. He was a military and political leader of the late Roman… [More] Republic. He came from a wealthy Italian provincial background, and his father had been the first to establish the family among the Roman nobility. In what was referred to as Judea, Pompey intervened in the civil war between Hyrcanus II, who supported the Pharisee faction and Aristobulus II, who supported the Sadducees (schools of thought among Jews during the Second Temple period, beginning under the Hasmonean dynasty in the wake of the Maccabean Revolt). The armies of Pompey and Hyrcanus II then laid siege to Jerusalem, and after three months, the city fell. [Less]
1867: Walther Rathenau
Rathenau was a German Jewish industrialist, politician, writer, and statesman who served as foreign… [More] minister of Germany during the Weimar Republic. He was a moderate liberal in politics, and after World War I he was one of the founders of the German Democratic Party (DDP). He rejected the tide of socialist thought which swept Germany after the shock of defeat and revolution, opposing state ownership of industry and advocating greater worker participation in the management of companies. His ideas were influential in post-war governments. He was assassinated on June 24, 1922, two months after the signing of the Treaty of Rapallo (which renounced German territorial claims from WWI). Interesting fact: Rathenau is generally acknowledged to be the basis for the German industrialist character “Arnheim” in Robert Musil’s novel “The Man Without Qualities.” [Less]
1913: Stanley Kramer
Kramer was a Jewish-American film director and producer who became one of the nation’s most respected… [More] filmmakers. As an independent producer and director, he distinguished himself and his films by bringing attention to social issues that most studios avoided — such as racism, nuclear war, greed, creationism vs. evolution and the causes and effects of fascism. Some of his most famous films include: High Noon (1952, as producer), The Defiant Ones (1958), On the Beach (1959), Inherit the Wind (1960), Judgment at Nuremberg (1961), It’s a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World (1963), Ship of Fools (1965) and Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner (1967). [Less]