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Queen Isabella was one of the most important monarchs in Spanish history. She and her husband… [More] Ferdinand II of Aragon brought stability to both kingdoms that became the basis for the unification of Spain. Later the two laid solidified those foundations under their grandson, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. Isabella and Ferdinand are known for completing the Reconquista (the Christian conquering of Muslim-controlled Al Andalus), ordering conversion or exile of their Muslim and Jewish subjects, and financing Christopher Columbus’ 1492 voyage that led to the opening of the New World. [Less]
1724: Immanuel Kant
Kant was a German Enlightenment philosopher from Königsberg (today Kaliningrad of Russia) who… [More] researched, lectured, and wrote about philosophy and anthropology during the 18th century. His most famous work, “The Critique of Pure Reason” challenged previous philosophers as well as metaphysics in philosophy. His ideas influenced many thinkers in Germany during his lifetime. The philosophers Fichte, Schelling, Hegel and Schopenhauer amended and developed the Kantian system, thus bringing about various forms of German idealism. Their ideas widely influence the philosophy of Hegel and other social philosophers as well as the “Jewish Question” that Marx and other philosophers analyzed during the modern period. [Less]
1870: Vladimir Lenin
Lenin was a Russian Marxist revolutionary and communist politician who led the October… [More] Revolution of 1917. He led the Bolsheviks during their initial years in power (1917-1924), as it jockeyed for control of Russia during the Russian Civil War. He had previously supported the 1905 Russian Revolution, but was exiled after, until he returned to Russia during the 1917 Bolshevik uprising against Czar Nicholas II. Historians note that Lenin was a persuasive orator. As a political scientist, his theoretic and philosophical Marxist ideals produced Marxism–Leninism, the pragmatic Russian application of Marxism. He is believed to have Jewish roots via his maternal grandfather. [Less]