As Erdogan joins Hagia Sophia Muslim prayers, ‘2nd conquest of Istanbul’ hailed
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Photo essay'This is the moment when Turkey breaks its chains'

As Erdogan joins Hagia Sophia Muslim prayers, ‘2nd conquest of Istanbul’ hailed

Now reconverted into a mosque, site was built as a cathedral during Christian Byzantine Empire, became a mosque after the Ottoman conquest in 1453, was turned into a museum in 1934

  • Turkey's President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, center, takes part in Friday prayers in Hagia Sophia, at the historic Sultanahmet district of Istanbul, July 24, 2020. (Turkish Presidency via AP, Pool)
    Turkey's President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, center, takes part in Friday prayers in Hagia Sophia, at the historic Sultanahmet district of Istanbul, July 24, 2020. (Turkish Presidency via AP, Pool)
  • A man draped in a Turkish flag stands as people walk inside the Byzantine-era Hagia Sophia following the inaugural Friday prayers, in the historic Sultanahmet district of Istanbul, Friday, July 24, 2020. Worshipers held the first Muslim prayers in 86 years inside the Istanbul landmark that served as one of Christendom's most significant cathedrals, a mosque and a museum before its conversion back into a Muslim place of worship. The conversion of the edifice, has led to an international outcry. (AP Photo/Yasin Akgul)
    A man draped in a Turkish flag stands as people walk inside the Byzantine-era Hagia Sophia following the inaugural Friday prayers, in the historic Sultanahmet district of Istanbul, Friday, July 24, 2020. Worshipers held the first Muslim prayers in 86 years inside the Istanbul landmark that served as one of Christendom's most significant cathedrals, a mosque and a museum before its conversion back into a Muslim place of worship. The conversion of the edifice, has led to an international outcry. (AP Photo/Yasin Akgul)
  • An imam reads from the Quran, Islams holy book, as dignitaries including Turkey's President Recep Tayyip Erdogan take part in Friday prayers in Hagia Sophia, at the historic Sultanahmet district of Istanbul, Friday, July 24, 2020. (Turkish Presidency via AP, Pool)
    An imam reads from the Quran, Islams holy book, as dignitaries including Turkey's President Recep Tayyip Erdogan take part in Friday prayers in Hagia Sophia, at the historic Sultanahmet district of Istanbul, Friday, July 24, 2020. (Turkish Presidency via AP, Pool)
  • People pray inside the Byzantine-era Hagia Sophia, during afternoon prayers, in Istanbul, Friday, July 24, 2020. (AP Photo/Yasin Akgul)
    People pray inside the Byzantine-era Hagia Sophia, during afternoon prayers, in Istanbul, Friday, July 24, 2020. (AP Photo/Yasin Akgul)
  • Muslims pray during Friday prayers at the historic Sultanahmet district of Istanbul, near the Byzantine-era Hagia Sophia, background, Friday, July 24, 2020. (AP Photo/Yasin Akgul)
    Muslims pray during Friday prayers at the historic Sultanahmet district of Istanbul, near the Byzantine-era Hagia Sophia, background, Friday, July 24, 2020. (AP Photo/Yasin Akgul)

ISTANBUL — Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan joined thousands Friday in the first Muslim prayers in Hagia Sophia since the Istanbul landmark was controversially converted back into a mosque.

Massive crowds gathered inside and outside the UNESCO World Heritage site, some draped in Turkish flags and others waving Islamic banners.

Erdogan put their number at 350,000, but that figure could not be independently verified.

Some scuffles broke out between worshipers and police as crowds scrambled to get into the overcrowded plaza in the historic Sultanahmet district of Istanbul, where people had camped out the night before.

Inside, the faithful, wearing protective face masks, took photos as they waited for prayers to begin.

Worshipers pray in Hagia Sophia, in Istanbul, on July 26, 2020, during the first Muslim prayers since the controversial reconversion of the iconic Istanbul cathedral into a mosque (BULENT KILIC / AFP)

As the call to prayer reverberated from the Hagia Sophia’s four minarets, huge crowds spread prayer mats on the lawns outside.

Inside, the president, wearing an Islamic skullcap, recited a verse from the Koran.

In a sermon, the head of the state religious affairs agency, Ali Erbas, said that the reopening “is the return of a sacred place, which had embraced believers for five centuries, to its original function.”

Men take part in the Friday prayer on July 24, 2020 outside Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, the first muslim prayer held at the landmark since it was reconverted to a mosque despite international condemnation (OZAN KOSE / AFP)

Also in attendance was Erdogan’s ally and leader of the ultranationalist MHP, Devlet Bahceli, but no opposition party leaders were present.

Galvanizing voters?

The Hagia Sophia was built as a cathedral during the Christian Byzantine Empire and converted into a mosque after the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453.

In 1934, modern Turkey’s founder Mustafa Kemal Ataturk ordered it be turned into a museum.

But Turkey’s highest administrative court, the Council of State, cancelled that decision earlier this month, arguing that the building had been registered as a mosque in its property deeds.

Experts see Erdogan’s move to turn Hagia Sophia back into a mosque as an attempt to galvanize his conservative and nationalist base amid economic uncertainty exacerbated by the virus outbreak.

The timing of the first prayer is significant as it coincided with the 97th anniversary of the Treaty of Lausanne, which set modern Turkey’s borders after years of conflict with Greece and Western powers.

Greece has condemned the move as a provocation to the “entire civilized world.”

This photo taken on July 26, 2020 shows the Hagia Sophia (R) during sunset after the official opening ceremony for Muslim prayers since the controversial reconversion of the iconic Istanbul cathedral into a mosque (BULENT KILIC / AFP)

“What is happening in (Istanbul) this day is not a show of force, but proof of weakness,” Greek premier Kyriakos Mitsotakis said in a statement.

“Especially to us Orthodox Christians, Hagia Sophia today is in our hearts more than ever. It is where our heart beats.”

‘Bad starting point’

One of the EU’s most senior officials warned that Ankara was undermining its ties with Europe.

“As a Greek, I’m quite bitter. I’m feeling quite angry about it,” European Commission vice-president Margaritis Schinas told a press briefing.

“I think that Turkey at a certain point should decide what their geopolitical stance should be, and who they want to align themselves with in the future,” warned Schinas, going further than the EU’s statements of concern to date.

“Will Turkey want to work along with the European Union and base themselves on European values? And, if that’s the case, what’s happening today with the Hagia Sophia is really a bad starting point.”

A crescent moon is seen in the sky over Hagia Sophia in Istanbul on July 25, 2020 (Ozan KOSE / AFP)

In Greece, church bells pealed at midday and flags were flown at half-mast as the head of the Church of Greece, Archbishop Ieronymos, described the conversion back into a mosque an “unholy act of defiling.”

Ankara has dismissed international criticism, and insisted that tourists — some 3.8 million last year — would still be able to visit the mosque and see its famous Byzantine mosaics.

The mosaics, plastered over for centuries when the building served as a mosque, will now be hidden by curtains during prayer times since Islam bans figurative representations.

For many Muslims, the reconversion is nevertheless a landmark event.

People visit Hagia Sophia, in Istanbul, on July 26, 2020 (BULENT KILIC / AFP)

“We see this as the second conquest of Istanbul,” said Selahattin Pamukcu, 33, who had come especially from the Aegean region of Izmir.

“This is the moment when Turkey breaks its chains. Now it can do whatever it wants, without having to submit to the West,” added Selahattin Aydas from Germany.

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