Latest ceasefire in Sudan violated within hours, as humanitarian crisis worsens

The most recent truce, the first to be supported by a joint US-Saudi effort, is set to take effect on Monday evening, violence erupted in Khartoum within hours of its signing

Smoke rises in Khartoum, Sudan, April 29, 2023, as gunfire and heavy artillery fire continued despite the extension of a cease-fire between the country's two top generals. (AP Photo/Marwan Ali)
Smoke rises in Khartoum, Sudan, April 29, 2023, as gunfire and heavy artillery fire continued despite the extension of a cease-fire between the country's two top generals. (AP Photo/Marwan Ali)

KHARTOUM, Sudan – Air raids, gunfire, and explosions rocked Sudan’s capital on Sunday, hours after rival generals agreed to a one-week ceasefire, the latest in a series of truces that have been systematically violated.

The truce is set to take effect at 9:45 p.m. (1945 GMT) on Monday, the United States and Saudi Arabia said in a joint statement after talks in the Saudi city of Jeddah.

It “shall remain in effect for seven days and may be extended with the agreement of both parties,” the statement added.

In a deserted neighborhood of Khartoum North, Hussein Mohammed is hoping that, finally, the guns will silence.

The United Nations says fighting has driven nearly 650,000 Khartoum residents from their homes, but Mohammed has remained, sheltering in place with his sick mother.

“They have announced truces that they have not held to before,” he told AFP. “We hope that this time mediators can monitor that the ceasefire is implemented.”

People wait next to passenger buses as smoke billows in an area in Khartoum where fighting continues between Sudan’s army and the paramilitary forces on April 28, 2023. (AFP)

In a statement published Sunday by the official Saudi Press Agency, Riyadh acknowledged the multiple truce violations since fighting began on April 15.

“Unlike previous ceasefires, the agreement reached in Jeddah was signed by the parties and will be supported by a US-Saudi and international-supported ceasefire monitoring mechanism,” the Saudi foreign ministry said.

The fighting pits the Sudanese army, commanded by General Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, against the paramilitary Rapid Support Forces (RSF), led by Burhan’s former deputy Mohamed Hamdan Daglo.

Battles have killed around 1,000 people and displaced more than one million, internally and into neighboring countries. Millions more are trapped with sporadic access to water, electricity, or medicine. Many have been separated from their families by unrelenting gunfire.

For Sawsan Mohammed, who lives in the capital’s south, the ceasefire – if implemented – “will be my first chance to see my mother and father in Omdurman,” just a bridge across the Nile River, she told AFP.

In this image made from video provided April 21, 2023, by the Sudan Armed Forces, Gen. Abdel-Fattah Burhan, commander of the Sudanese Armed Forces, speaks at an undisclosed location (Sudan Armed Forces via AP)

Aid efforts

Aerial footage last week showed a hellish scene in the Omdurman Market area, a heavily built-up district where multiple fires burned and people ran on rubble strewn streets.

Again on Sunday, the United Nations aid chief, Martin Griffiths, called for the “safe delivery of humanitarian aid” and “restoration of essential services.”

The warring parties had signed on May 12 in Jeddah an agreement to respect humanitarian principles and allow in badly needed aid.

But since then, a UN report on Sunday said there had been “at least 11 attacks against humanitarian premises in Khartoum, and four new attacks against health facilities.”

Along with the capital, the western region of Darfur has seen some of the worst violence.

“We do not trust the warring sides,” said Adam Issa, a shop owner in El Geneina, West Darfur. “Every time they announce a truce and they go back to fighting. We want a permanent ceasefire, not a temporary truce.”

The UN has reported hundreds of people killed in West Darfur and on Sunday said all 86 gathering sites for displaced people in El Geneina “have reportedly been burned to the ground.”

Janjaweed in Darfur. (YouTube screenshot)

Darfur is still reeling from a conflict that erupted in 2003 when former autocrat Omar al-Bashir unleashed the feared Janjaweed militia – which formed the basis for the RSF – to crush a rebellion by ethnic minority groups.

Burhan on Friday officially sacked Daglo from the position he had held on a governing council formed after they launched a coup in October 2021. Their putsch derailed a transition to civilian rule put in place following Bashir’s overthrow in 2019.

‘End the war’

Former rebel leader Malik Agar, who replaced Daglo as the council’s vice president, on Saturday said he was determined to try to “end the war.”

He also directly addressed Daglo, whose dispute with Burhan over the RSF’s integration into the regular army led to the war.

“Sudan’s stability can only be re-established by a professional and unified army,” Agar said.

Residents of densely-populated neighborhoods have accused RSF fighters of widespread break-ins and looting.

In the Vatican on Sunday, Pope Francis welcomed “the partial agreements reached so far,” but called “on the international community to spare no effort… to ease the suffering of the population.”

Pope Francis speaks during a meeting in St. Stephen’s cathedral in Budapest on April 28, 2023. (Vincenzo Pinto/AFP)

With most banks shuttered, warehouses and factories looted, attacked and burned, and fuel in scarce supply, access to food across Sudan is becoming increasingly difficult.

Aid agencies have been ramping up their response, despite the challenges.

Currently, 25 million people – more than half of the population – need humanitarian aid.

The UN’s special envoy to Sudan, Volker Perthes, on Saturday flew to New York, where he is due to brief the Security Council on Monday.

Sudan was also on the world stage at Cannes, where director Mohamed Kordofani’s “Goodbye Julia” became the first Sudanese film featured in the Official Selection.

Kordofani said he felt honored and proud but also guilty, because “while I am on the red carpet, people are trying to flee the bombs.”

Most Popular
read more: