What makes shmura matzah the caviar of flatbread?
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'It is a bargain. Buy less brisket '

What makes shmura matzah the caviar of flatbread?

Seder-goers can’t seem to get enough of the hand-crafted, meticulously supervised unleavened bread, even for up to $60 a pound

Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu holding a shmura matzah at a matzah factory in Kfar Chabad, Israel, prior to the upcoming Jewish holiday of Passover,  April 1, 2014. (Kobi Gideon/GPO/Flash90)
Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu holding a shmura matzah at a matzah factory in Kfar Chabad, Israel, prior to the upcoming Jewish holiday of Passover, April 1, 2014. (Kobi Gideon/GPO/Flash90)

NEW YORK (JTA) – It costs more per pound than filet mignon. It might be burnt or taste like cardboard. It’s so delicate it often breaks in the box, rendering it unfit for Passover ritual use.

Yet every year, Jews from Brooklyn to Israel’s Bnei Brak line up to fork over their hard-earned money to buy boxes and boxes of the stuff.

This isn’t your regular box of Streit’s matzah. We’re talking, of course, about handmade shmura matzah: the artisanal, disc-shaped matzahs considered extra special because the ingredients are “guarded” against leavening, or chametz, not just from the time the wheat is ground into flour, but from before the wheat is even harvested. (“Shmura” is Hebrew for guarded.)

The extra level of scrutiny — and the labor-intensive process required to make handcrafted matzah — is largely what accounts for its high price: anywhere from $20 to $60 for a single pound.

Every shmura matzah is inspected for quality and adherence to kosher standards before it is boxed. (Uriel Heilman/JTA)
Every shmura matzah is inspected for quality and adherence to kosher standards before it is boxed. (Uriel Heilman/JTA)

“The amount of hours of labor going into this between me and my staff is incomparable,” said Yisroel Bass, who runs a farm in Goshen, New York, that produces organically grown shmura matzah ($34 per pound for regular shmura, $37 for spelt).

“Renting out a bakery costs a lot of money – the space and the staff. Equipment breaks every year. Every farm has its expenses, and organic farms end up having more overhead. We can’t buy the synthetic fertilizer; we have manure,” Bass told JTA. “And God forbid I have a bad year and the rabbi comes and says the wheat is no good, I just spent a whole lot of time and money on a product nobody wants. The cost has to reflect that.”

‘For the consumer, it is an opportunity to purchase the only sacred food that we have today in our faith’

Despite its price — and, some say, its taste — there’s a thriving market for handmade shmura matzah. (There’s also machine-made shmura, which is cheaper and usually square but more strictly scrutinized than regular matzah.)

Many observant Jews won’t use anything other than handmade shmura matzah on their seder table. Some won’t eat non-shmura anytime during Passover. The same Jews who light expensive olive oil menorahs on Hanukkah rather than wax candles or buy premium etrogs for Sukkot will lay out extra cash before Passover to buy handmade shmura matzah. (The practice of going above and beyond is known as “hiddur mitzvah,” or beautifying the commandment.)

“For the consumer, it is an opportunity to purchase the only sacred food that we have today in our faith,” said Rabbi Shmuel Herzfeld of Ohev Sholom synagogue in Washington, D.C. “It is a bargain. Buy less brisket and more shmura matzah.”

Matzah dough is rolled into thin, round discs before it is perforated and baked. Every 15 minutes at the Satmar Bakery in Brooklyn, the work ceases while all surfaces are scoured or replaced, and all hands are washed to remove stray bits of dough. (Uriel Heilman/JTA)
Matzah dough is rolled into thin, round discs before it is perforated and baked. Every 15 minutes at the Satmar Bakery in Brooklyn, the work ceases while all surfaces are scoured or replaced, and all hands are washed to remove stray bits of dough. (Uriel Heilman/JTA)

Mitchell Weitzman, a lawyer from Baltimore, says shmura matzah has sentimental value.

“There is just a sense of authenticity about having shmura matzah on the table,” Weitzman said. “It’s a feeling more than anything else — certainly more than serving up Passover-style Fruit Loops the next morning.”

Others say they like the taste and eat it year round, stocking up right after Passover when the price drops dramatically owing to reduced demand.

‘I keep a box of shmura matzah in the trunk of my car’

“I keep a box of shmura matzah in the trunk of my car,” said Tali Aronsky, a public relations doyenne who lives in Israel. “Keeps crispy in all weather and great in a pinch.”

Religious Jews consider shmura matzah baked after midday on the day before Passover — known as “matzot mitzvah” — as especially meritorious to eat, and the matzah is priced accordingly. At the Satmar Bakery in the Williamsburg section of Brooklyn, a pound of the Passover eve-baked stuff retails for $60. The line of customers at the Rutledge Street store usually snakes around the block.

The Satmar Bakery employs a number of stringencies rare even in the world of shmura matzah. It harvests its wheat in Arizona, where the dry climate helps guard against accidental leavening (moisture precipitates leavening).

Matzah farmers in the Northeast typically harvest their wheat crop in May or June – around the Shavuot holiday (also called Hag Habikurim, which means Festival of the First Fruits). The wheat is plucked after the kernels start to harden but before they sprout new shoots. Kosher supervisors monitor the grain even as it’s growing to make sure the wheat isn’t sprouting.

It takes about 20 seconds in a 1,300-degree Fahrenheit, coal-and-wood-fired oven to bake shmurah matzah to perfection. (Uriel Heilman/JTA)
It takes about 20 seconds in a 1,300-degree Fahrenheit, coal-and-wood-fired oven to bake shmurah matzah to perfection. (Uriel Heilman/JTA)

From the time it is picked until being milled months later, the wheat must be guarded and stored in a climate-controlled environment. Too moist, it could become hametz. Too dry, it will fail to bake properly. At the Yiddish Farm in upstate New York, Bass says he uses fans and computer monitoring to bring the moisture level down to the desired 11-12 percent level.

After the wheat is milled into flour – also under close supervision – the baking process may begin.

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