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By Sea of Galilee, unprecedented excavation of mosque from Islam’s first decades

Tiberias mosque was built in 670 CE, soon after death of Prophet Mohammad; stood near synagogues and Byzantine church in ‘Golden Age’ of tolerance in newly Muslim-conquered city

Ilan Ben Zion, a reporter at the Associated Press, is a former news editor at The Times of Israel. He holds a Masters degree in Diplomacy from Tel Aviv University and an Honors Bachelors degree from the University of Toronto in Near and Middle Eastern Civilizations, Jewish Studies, and English.

  • Dr. Katia Cytryn-Silverman, an archaeologist with The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, poses for a portrait at the site of the Al-Juma (Friday) Mosque, in Tiberias, northern Israel, Wednesday, Jan. 27, 2021. (AP Photo/Maya Alleruzzo)
    Dr. Katia Cytryn-Silverman, an archaeologist with The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, poses for a portrait at the site of the Al-Juma (Friday) Mosque, in Tiberias, northern Israel, Wednesday, Jan. 27, 2021. (AP Photo/Maya Alleruzzo)
  • This 2014 aerial photo shows the site of the Al-Juma (Friday) Mosque in Tiberias, northern Israel. (NTEP/ David Silverman and Yuval Nadel via AP)
    This 2014 aerial photo shows the site of the Al-Juma (Friday) Mosque in Tiberias, northern Israel. (NTEP/ David Silverman and Yuval Nadel via AP)
  • At the foot of Mount Bernice, stones from the Al-Juma (Friday) Mosque are visible through overgrown plants, in Tiberias, northern Israel, Wednesday, Jan. 27, 2021. Archaeologists said recent excavations at the ancient city of Tiberias have discovered the remnants of one of the earliest mosques in the Islamic world. (AP Photo/Maya Alleruzzo)
    At the foot of Mount Bernice, stones from the Al-Juma (Friday) Mosque are visible through overgrown plants, in Tiberias, northern Israel, Wednesday, Jan. 27, 2021. Archaeologists said recent excavations at the ancient city of Tiberias have discovered the remnants of one of the earliest mosques in the Islamic world. (AP Photo/Maya Alleruzzo)
  • Foundations of a 7th century mosque uncovered in Tiberias. (Hebrew University)
    Foundations of a 7th century mosque uncovered in Tiberias. (Hebrew University)

TIBERIAS (AP) — Archaeologists in Israel say they have discovered the remnants of an early mosque — believed to date to the earliest decades of Islam — during an excavation in the northern city of Tiberias.

This mosque’s foundations, excavated just south of the Sea of Galilee by the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, point to its construction in 670 CE, roughly a generation after the death of the Prophet Mohammad, making it one of the earliest Muslim houses of worship to be studied by archaeologists and apparently the earliest to be excavated.

“We know about many early mosques that were founded right in the beginning of the Islamic period,” said Katia Cytryn-Silverman, a specialist in Islamic archaeology at Hebrew University who heads the dig. Other mosques dating from around the same time, such as the Prophet’s Mosque in Medina, the Great Mosque of Damascus, and Jerusalem’s Al-Aqsa Mosque, are still in use today and cannot be tampered with by archaeologists.

She said it is the oldest mosque in the world that can be excavated. Other ancient mosques are either still being used or have had other mosques built on top of them, hindering research. The previous oldest mosque to be excavated was in Wasit, Iraq, and built in 703 CE, Cytryn-Silverman said, but the mosque in Tiberias is decades older.

This 2014 aerial photo shows the site of the Al-Juma (Friday) Mosque in Tiberias, northern Israel. (NTEP/ David Silverman and Yuval Nadel via AP)

Cytryn-Silverman said that excavating the Tiberian mosque allows a rare chance to study the architecture of Muslim prayer houses in their infancy and indicates a tolerance for other faiths by early Islamic leaders. She announced the findings this month in a virtual conference.

When the mosque was built around 670 CE, Tiberias had been a Muslim-ruled city for a few decades. Named after Rome’s second emperor around 20 CE, the city was a major center of Jewish life and scholarship for nearly five centuries. Before its conquest by Muslim armies in 635, the Byzantine city was home to one of a constellation of Christian holy sites dotting the Sea of Galilee’s shoreline.

Under Muslim rule, Tiberias became a provincial capital in the early Islamic empire and grew in prominence. Early caliphs built palaces on its outskirts along the lake shore. But until recently, little was known about the city’s early Muslim past.

Dr. Katia Cytryn-Silverman, an archaeologist with The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, poses for a portrait at the site of the Al-Juma (Friday) Mosque, in Tiberias, northern Israel, Wednesday, Jan. 27, 2021. (AP Photo/Maya Alleruzzo)

Gideon Avni, chief archaeologist with the Israel Antiquities Authority, who was not involved in the excavation, said the discovery helps resolve a scholarly debate about when mosques began standardizing their design, facing toward Mecca.

“In the archaeological finds, it was very rare to find early mosques,” he said.

Archaeological digs around Tiberias have proceeded in fits and starts for the past century. In recent decades the ancient city has started yielding other monumental buildings from its past, including a sizeable Roman theater overlooking the water and a Byzantine church.

Since early last year, the coronavirus pandemic halted excavations and lush Galilean grasses, herbs and weeds have grown over the ruins. Hebrew University and its partners, the German Protestant Institute of Archaeology, plan to restart the dig in February.

At the foot of Mount Bernice, stones from the Al-Juma (Friday) Mosque are visible through overgrown plants, in Tiberias, northern Israel, Wednesday, Jan. 27, 2021. Archaeologists said recent excavations at the ancient city of Tiberias have discovered the remnants of one of the earliest mosques in the Islamic world. (AP Photo/Maya Alleruzzo)

Initial excavations of the site in the 1950s led scholars to believe that the building was a Byzantine marketplace later used as a mosque.

But Cytryn-Silverman’s excavations delved deeper beneath the floor. Coins and ceramics nestled among at the base of the crudely crafted foundations helped date them to around 660-680 CE, barely a generation after the city’s capture. The building’s dimensions, pillared floor-plan, and qiblah, or prayer niche, closely paralleled other mosques from the period.

Avni said that for a long time, academics weren’t sure what happened to cities in the Levant and Mesopotamia conquered by the Muslims in the early 7th century.

“Earlier opinions said that there was a process of conquest, destruction and devastation,” he said. Today, he said, archaeologists understand that there was a “fairly gradual process, and in Tiberias you see that.”

The first mosque built in the newly conquered city stood cheek by jowl with the local synagogues and the Byzantine church that dominated the skyline. This earliest phase of the mosque was “more humble” than a larger, grander structure that replaced it half a century later, Cytryn-Silverman said.

Foundations of a 7th-century mosque uncovered in Tiberias. (Hebrew University)

“At least until the monumental mosque was erected in the 8th century, the church continued being the main building in Tiberias,” she added.

She says this supports the idea that the early Muslim rulers — who governed an overwhelmingly non-Muslim population — adopted a tolerant approach toward other faiths, allowing a “golden age” of coexistence.

“You see that the beginning of the Islamic rule here respected very much the population that was the main population of the city: Christians, Jews, Samaritans,” Cytryn-Silverman said. “They were not in a hurry to make their presence expressed into buildings. They were not destroying others’ houses of prayers, but they were actually fitting themselves into the societies that they now were the leaders of.”

Times of Israel staff contributed to this report.

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